Building Information Modeling (BIM)

3D Scope Modeling │ 4D Time Modeling │ 5D Cost Modeling

Imagining Dimensions: 3D Scope Model  │ 4D Time Model │ 5D Cost Model


  • BIM (Building Information Model) is a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a form, shape, or facility in three dimensions.

  • A 3D Scope Model is obtained by converting 2D drawings & specification (two dimensional drawings & specification) to 3D drawings & specification (three dimensional drawings & specification) with the help of BIM.

    • The practice of creating 3D Scope Models is called 3D Scope Modeling, commonly known as 3D BIM.

  • A 4D Time Model is obtained by combining a 3D Scope Model with a CPM Construction Schedule. In combining three dimensional drawings & specification (3D Scope Model) with Time (CPM Construction Schedule) as the fourth dimension, the resulting data model is a 4D Time Model.

    • The practice of creating 4D Time Models is called 4D Time Modeling, commonly known as 4D Scheduling.

    • 4D Time Models are also commonly known as 4D BIM, or 4D Schedules.

    • 4D Time Models are essentially time lapsed visuals of the entire construction project. Such visuals enable all the stakeholders on a project including architects, designers, owners, and contractors, to imagine, and comprehend every aspect and sequence of the project.

  • A 5D Cost Model is obtained by combining a 4D Time Model with the Project Budget / Cost Estimate. A 5D Cost Model utilizes Cost (or Time Distributed Cost) as the fifth dimension.

    • The practice of creating 5D Cost Models is called 5D Cost Modeling.


Advantages of 4D Time Models

  • 4D Time Models provide easily interpreted construction sequence for all stakeholders, and help in managing stakeholders' expectations during the project lifecycle.

  • 4D Time Models, by upfront visualization of the project sequence and milestones, help minimize uncertainty and risks in construction projects, and help drive down the actual project costs.

  • 4D Time Models help the project team visualize logistical issues or inefficiencies. The simulations help expose details such as out-of-sequence work, scheduling conflicts between multiple trades, what if scenarios, and macro-level construction phasing strategies – all in order to achieve the optimization of the construction schedule and project sequence.

  • 4D Time Models help with identifications of long lead items early on, helping with overall reduction in construction project duration.

  • 4D Time Models improve constructability, and help identify safety issues.

  • 4D Time Models facilitate collaboration among stakeholders who have historically held different perspectives on the project status. Diverse stakeholders such as architects, owners, construction managers, contractors, and sub-contractors are able to assess Actual vs As-Planned work in a side-by-side, apples-to-apples comparison. This graphical comparison helps to quickly identify and resolve issues.

BIM Services at Stoneboy

  • 3D Scope Modeling

  • 4D Time Modeling

    • Schedule Baseline in 4D │ Schedule Integration, Master Schedule in 4D

    • Schedule Updates in 4D │ 

    • Visuals for Lookahead Schedules in 4D │ Visuals for Logistics Plans in 4D 

    • Visuals for What-if Scenarios in 4D

    • Visuals for Comparison of Actual vs As-Planned in 4D

    • Visuals for Construction Claims, Construction Dispute Management (CDM) in 4D

  • 5D Cost Modeling