SME for Construction Law



  • BIM (Building Information Model) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility in 3 dimensions.

  • When a BIM (3 dimensions) is combined with a CPM construction schedule (with time as the 4th dimension), the result is a 4D schedule model.

  • A 4D schedule model is essentially a time lapsed visual of the entire construction project. Such a time lapsed visual of the entire project enables all the stakeholders on a project such as architects, designers, owners, and contractors, to visualize every aspect and sequence of the project.

  • The practice of creating 4D schedule models is called 4D Scheduling.



  • 4D Scheduling provides an easily interpreted construction sequence for all stakeholders, and helps in managing stakeholders' expectations during the project lifecycle.

  • 4D Scheduling, by upfront visualization of the project sequence and milestones, helps minimize uncertainty, and risks in construction projects, and helps drive down the actual project costs.

  • 4D Scheduling helps the project team visualize logistical issues or inefficiencies. The simulation helps expose details such as out-of-sequence work, scheduling conflicts between multiple trades, what if scenarios, and macro-level construction phasing strategies – all in order to achieve the optimization of the construction schedule, and project sequence.

  • 4D Scheduling helps with identifications of long lead items early on, helping with overall reduction in construction project duration.

  • 4D Scheduling improves constructability, and helps identify safety issues.

  • 4D Scheduling facilitates collaboration among stakeholders who have historically held different perspectives on the project's status. Diverse stakeholders such as architects, owners, construction managers, contractors, and sub-contractors are able to assess Planned Work versus the Actual Work in a side by side comparison. This graphical comparison helps to quickly identify and resolve issues.


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  • 3D Models (BIM)